Call Now

Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)

The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a protein composed of 238 amino acid residues (26.9 kDa) that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light in the blue to ultraviolet range. Although many other marine organisms have similar green fluorescent proteins, GFP traditionally refers to the protein first isolated from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. The GFP from A. victoria has a major excitation peak at a wavelength of 395 nm and a minor one at 475 nm. Its emission peak is at 509 nm, which is in the lower green portion of the visible spectrum.The GFP from the sea pansy has a single major excitation peak at 498 nm. In cell and molecular biology, the GFP gene is frequently used as a reporter of expression. In modified forms it has been used to make biosensors, and many animals have been created that express GFP as a proof-of-concept that a gene can be expressed throughout a given organism.


"Primary structure of the Aequorea victoria green-fluorescent protein."
Gene 111:229-233(1992) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]

"Aequorea green fluorescent protein. Expression of the gene and fluorescence characteristics of the recombinant protein."
FEBS Lett. 341:277-280(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]

"Enhanced expression in tobacco of the gene encoding green fluorescent protein by modification of its codon usage."
Plant Mol. Biol. 33:989-999(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]

"FACS-optimized mutants of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)."
Gene 173:33-38(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]

"Chemical structure of the hexapeptide chromophore of the Aequorea green-fluorescent protein."
Biochemistry 32:1212-1218(1993) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]

"A molecular thermometer based on fluorescent protein blinking."
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129:10302-10303(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]

"Crystal structure of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein."
Science 273:1392-1395(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]

"The molecular structure of green fluorescent protein."
Nat. Biotechnol. 14:1246-1251(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]

"Structural basis of spectral shifts in the yellow-emission variants of green fluorescent protein."
Structure 6:1267-1277(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]

"Structural and spectral response of green fluorescent protein variants to changes in pH."
Biochemistry 38:5296-5301(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]