Cerebral Lacunar Infarction (CLI)
Cerebral infarction is focal brain necrosis due to complete and prolonged ischemia that affects all tissue elements, neurons, glia, and vessels. Ischemic infarcts cause focal neurological deficits. In embolic infarcts, these appear abruptly. In atherothrombotic infarcts, they evolve over a period of time, usually hours. Atherothombotic infarcts are often preceded by transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). A TIA is a focal neurological deficit that lasts less than 24 hours and resolves. The mechanism of TIAs is uncertain. They may be caused by critical reduction of perfusion that impairs neurological function but falls short of causing permanent tissue damage, or by emboli that break up soon after they occlude vessels.