A gallstone is a stone formed within the gallbladder out of bile components. The term cholelithiasis may refer to the presence of stones in the gallbladder or to the diseases caused by gallstones. In 1–4% of those with gallstones, a crampy pain in the right upper part of the abdomen, known as biliary colic, occurs each year. Complications of gallstones include inflammation of the gallbladder, inflammation of the pancreas, and liver inflammation.
The animal models for gallstone are commonly induced by eating bait cholesterol. Cholesterol gallstone disease is characterized by several events, including cholesterol precipitation in bile, increased bile salt hydrophobicity and gallbladder inflammation.