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Acute Pyelonephritis (AP)

Pyelitis; Nephritis

Pyelonephritis (pyelitis together with nephritis ) is an inflammation of the kidney tissue, calyces, and renal pelvis. It is commonly caused by bacterial infection that has spread up the urinary tract or travelled through the bloodstream to the kidneys. Severe cases of pyelonephritis can lead to pyonephrosis, sepsis, kidney failure and even death. Pyelonephritis that has progressed to urosepsis may be accompanied by signs of septic shock, including rapid breathing, decreased blood pressure, violent shivering, and occasionally delirium. 

Cytokines may play an important role in the regulation of host defense against local bacterial infections. Studies have evaluated the local production of cytokines in a BALB/c mouse model of Escherichia coli pyelonephritis.