Renal Urolithiasis (RU)
Kidney stones disease; Renal calculus; Nephrolith
Renal urolithiasis，also also known as kidney stone disease, is when a solid piece of material occurs in the urinary tract. Kidney stones typically form in the kidney and leave the body in the urine stream. A small stone may pass without causing symptoms. Most stones form due to a combination of genetics and environmental factors. Risk factors include high urine calcium levels, obesity, certain foods, some medications, calcium supplements, hyperparathyroidism, gout and not drinking enough fluids. Oxalate metabolism is considered to be almost identical between rats and humans. Thus, there are many similarities between experimental nephrolithiasis induced in rats and human kidney-stone formation, and a rat model of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis can be used to investigate the mechanisms involved in human kidney stone formation.