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Orchiditis; Testitis; Didymitis

Orchitis can  involve swelling, heavy pains and frequent infection, and is more rarely known as didymitis. 

Orchitis can be related to epididymitis infection that has spread to the testicles, sometimes caused by the sexually transmitted diseases chlamydia and gonorrhea. It has also been reported in cases of males infected with brucellosis. Orchitis can also be seen during active mumps, particularly in adolescent boys. 

Ischemic orchitis may result from damage to the blood vessels of the spermatic cord during inguinal herniorrhaphy, and may in the worst event lead to testicular atrophy. A murine model of autoimmune orchitis was induced by immunization with viable syngeneic testicular germ cells alone.