Hyperuricemia is an abnormally high level of uric acid in the blood. In the pH conditions of body fluid, uric acid exists largely as urate, the ion form. The amount of urate in the body depends on the balance between the amount of purines eaten in food, the amount of urate synthesised within the body, and the amount of urate that is excreted in urine or through the gastrointestinal tract. In humans, the upper end of the normal range is 360 µmol/L (6 mg/dL) for women and 400 µmol/L (6.8 mg/dL) for men. Many factors contribute to hyperuricemia, including genetics, insulin resistance, hypertension, hypothyroidism, renal insufficiency, obesity, diet, use of diuretics, and consumption of alcoholic beverages.