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Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE)

HIBD; NE; Hypoxic-ischemic brain damage; Neonatal encephalopathy

HIE is defined by signs and symptoms of abnormal neurological function in the first few days of life in an infant born at term. It is commonly caused by birth asphyxia. Cord blood gas analysis can be used to determine if there is perinatal hypoxia/asphyxia, which are potential causes of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy or cerebral palsy, and give insight into causes of intrapartum fetal distress. Cord blood gas analysis is indicated for high-risk pregnancies, in cases where C-sections occurred due to fetal compromise, if there were abnormal fetal heart rate patterns, Apgar scores of 3 or lower, intrapartum fever, or multifetal gestation.Evidence of brain injury related to the hypoxic-ischemic events that cause neonatal encephalopathy can be seen with brain MRIs or magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging.