Behavioral Despair Depression (BDD)
Behavioral despair; Behavioral depression
Tests of behavioral despair are used to measure the effects of exposure to stress or antidepressant drugs on the behavior of laboratory animals (typically rats or mice). When forced to swim in a restricted space without the possibility of escape, rats and mice will eventually adopt a characteristic immobile posture, where they remain passively floating in the water making only those movements necessary to keep their heads above water. The antidepressant-like activity of an extract of the roots of Rhodiola rosea (RR), its combination with piperine containing extract (RPE), pure substances isolated from Rhodiola, such as rhodioloside, rosavin, rosin, rosarin, tyrosol, cinnamic alcohol, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid has been assessed in laboratory animals through application of the Porsolt behavioural despair assay.