Chronic Epilepsy (CE)
Cognitive profiles in epilepsy are as heterogenous as the epileptic syndromes themselves; causes, topography of epileptogenic areas, pathogenetic mechanisms, and the diverse features characterising the clinical course all contribute to the effect on cognition. Chronic epilepsy generally impairs cognition, but it also induces processes of functional reorganisation and behavioural compensation. In most idiopathic epilepsies, cognition is only mildly deteriorated or even normal by clinical standards. Localisation-related cryptogenic and symptomatic epilepsy disorders are accompanied by focal deficits that mirror the specific functions of the respective areas. Poor cognitive outcome is generally associated with an early onset and a long duration of the disease and with poor seizure control.